Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force in 2005, operationalises the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It commits signatories to limiting and reducing greenhouse gases emissions in accordance with agreed individual targets. Countries are encouraged to meet their targets through national measures but they can also achieve them via the International Emissions Trading, the Clean Development Mechanism or Joint implementation trading schemes. The Protocol established a rigorous monitoring, review and verification system, as well as a compliance system to ensure transparency and hold parties to account.